Peces Criollos - Freshwater Fishes of Argentina Peces Criollos - Freshwater Fishes of Argentina
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Megalebias is a junior synonym of Austrolebias

Megalebias Costa, 1998
is a junior synonym of the genus name
Austrolebias Costa, 1998

remarks:
López et al. (2003) followed Costa (1998) by listing Cynolebias elongatus Steindachner, 1881 and C. monstrosus Huber, 1995 (sub monstruosus) both as species of the genus Megalebias.
By the present synonymization of Megalebias with Austrolebias the new combinations for these two species are
Austrolebias elongatus (Steindachner, 1881)
and
Austrolebias monstrosus (Huber, 1995).

In the introduction of his recent paper Costa mentions Megalebias as a subgenus of Austrolebias, but does not mention this proposal again in any other part of the paper. For Megalebias as a subgenus no diagnosis or a list of included species is provided. Most probably the new use as a subgenus shall include those species which were included in the former genus Megalebias and are now presented as members of ‘Clade A2: Austrolebias elongatus species group’.

published in:
Costa, W.J.E.M. (2006):
The South American annual killifish genus Austrolebias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae): phylogenetic relationships, descriptive morphology and taxonomic revision.
Zootaxa 1213: 1-162

details (from publication):
(p. 6, introduction): More remarkable is the large size and development of the jaws in some species of the subgenus Megalebias, making them voracious predators of closely related species, an uncommon feature among aplocheiloids.
(p. 145, discussion): The phylogenetic hypothesis derived from the analysis of morphological characters supports monophyly of the clade comprising Austrolebias and Megalebias, as defined by Costa (2002a). This clade is also supported by molecular studies (e. g., García et al., 2002). However, while Megalebias is strongly supported by bootstrap values, monophyly of Austrolebias sensu Costa (1998a) is supported by neither morphological nor molecular data (García et al., 2002). To make the generic classification consistent with the most recent studies, Megalebias and Austrolebias sensu Costa (1998a) are united into a single genus, Austrolebias, for which monophyly is strongly supported and is easily diagnosed both by external morphological and osteological characters (see earlier generic diagnosis).


abstract (from publication):
The annual fish genus Austrolebias is redefined to include species previously placed in Megalebias, and is revised based on characters of osteology, external morphology, the latero-sensory system and color patterns. Monophyly of Austrolebias is supported by the absence of scales between the corner of the mouth and anterior portion of the preopercular region and ventral portion of the opercular region, a deep urohyal, presence of a dark gray supraorbital spot, dorsal and anal fins rounded in males, a long urogenital papilla in males, and reduced ventral process of the angulo-articular. Thirty-eight species are recognized as valid: A. cinereus, A. robustus, A. nonoiuliensis, and A. bellottii, from the lower de La Plata River basin and adjacent areas; A. varzeae, A. melanoorus, A. apaii Costa, Laurino, Recuero & Salvia, new species, A. alexandri, A. ibicuiensis, A. affinis, A. duraznensis, and A. periodicus, from the Uruguay River basin; A. nigripinnis and A. elongatus n. comb., from both the lower de La Plata and Uruguay river basins; A. viarius, A. univentripinnis, A. charrua, A. minuano, A. adloffi, A. nigrofasciatus, A. nachtigalli Costa & Cheffe, new species, A. salviai Costa, Litz & Laurino, new species, A. luteoflammulatus, A. gymnoventris, A. jaegari, A. cheradophilus n. comb., A. wolterstorffi n. comb., and A. prognathus n. comb., A. cyaneus, and A. litzi new species, from the dos Patos lagoon system and adjacent areas to the south; A. vazferreirai, A. arachan, and A. juanlangi Costa, Cheffe, Salvia & Litz, new species, from both the dos Patos lagoon system and Uruguay River basin; A. paranaensis, new species, A. vandenbergi, A. monstrosus n. comb., A. patriciae, from the Paraguay and middle Paraná river basins; and, A. carvalhoi, from the rio Iguaçu basin. A key to the identification of species is provided. A phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphology for species of Austrolebias is compared to a recent hypothesis based on molecular data, demonstrating partial or full congruence between the two sets of character

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